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Clinical Cases:

Crown

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Cleaning

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Gingival Grafts

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Prosthetics

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Prosthetics & Implants

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Glossary of Terms

Prosthetics

In medicine, a prosthesis (plural prostheses; from the Greek πρόσθεσις "addition") is an artificial extension that replaces a missing body part. It is part of the field of biomechatronics, the science of using mechanical devices with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease, or defect. Prostheses are typically used to replace parts lost by injury (traumatic) or missing from birth (congenital) or to supplement defective body parts. Inside the body, artificial heart valves are in common use with artificial hearts and lungs seeing less common use but under active technology development. Other medical devices and aids that can be considered prosthetics include artificial eyes, palatal obturator, gastric bands, and dentures.

Dental Implant

A dental implant is an artificial tooth root replacement and is used in prosthetic dentistry to support restorations that resemble a tooth or group of teeth.

There are several types of dental implants. The major classifications are divided into osseointegrated implant and the fibrointegrated implant. Earlier implants, such as the subperiosteal implant and the blade implant were usually fibrointegrated. The most widely accepted and successful implant today is the osseointegrated implant, based on the discovery by Swedish Professor Per-Ingvar Brånemark that titanium can be successfully fused into bone when osteoblasts grow on and into the rough surface of the implanted titanium. This forms a structural and functional connection between the living bone and the implant.

A variation on the implant procedure is the implant-supported bridge, or implant-supported denture.

Periodontology

Periodontology, or Periodontics, is the branch of dentistry which studies supporting structures of teeth, and diseases and conditions that affect them.

The, supporting tissues are known as the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), alveolar bone, cementum, and the periodontal ligament. The word comes from the Greek words peri meaning around and odons meaning tooth. Literally taken, it means study of that which is "around the tooth".

Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm accumulation of the gingiva and teeth, combined with host immuno-inflammatory mechanisms and other risk factors which lead to destruction of the supporting bone around natural teeth. Untreated, these diseases lead to alveolar bone loss and tooth loss and, to date, continue to be the leading cause of tooth loss in adults.

Endodontics

Endodontics, from the Greek endo (inside) and odons (tooth), is one of the nine specialties of dentistry recognized by the American Dental Association, and deals with the tooth pulp and the tissues surrounding the root of a tooth. If the pulp (containing nerves, arterioles and venules as well as lymphatic tissue and fibrous tissue) has become diseased or injured, endodontic treatment is required to save the tooth.

Pediatric Dentistry

Pediatric Dentistry (formerly Pedodontics/Paedodontics) is the branch of dentistry dealing with children from birth through adolescence. It is one of the Specialties recognized by the American Dental Association, Royal College of Dentists of Canada, and Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons.

This discipline focuses intimately on pediatric/adolescent growth and development, disease causality and prevention, child psychology and management, and all aspects of the highly-specialized Pediatric restorative techniques and modalities. Some Pediatric Dentists also specialize in the care of "special needs" patients, such as people with cerebral palsy, mental retardation and autism.

Pediatric Dentistry places special importance in preventing tooth decay. Studies show that poor oral health care in children can lead to impaired school performance and poor social relationships. Therefore, Pediatric Dentists give advice on how to make teeth strong the importance of developing healthy eating habits and other ways to prevent disease from occurring.

Additionally, Pediatric Dentists work toward the maintenance of primary teeth (baby teeth) until they are naturally lost. This is due to the importance they serve in permitting children to chew properly and therefore maintain good nutrition, their role in speech development, and the maintenance of space for the eventual eruption of the permanent teeth.

Dental Restoration

A dental restoration or dental filling is a dental restorative material used to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure. The structural loss typically results from caries or external trauma. It is also lost intentionally during tooth preparation to improve the aesthetics or the physical integrity of the intended restorative material. Dental restoration also refers to the replacement of missing tooth structure which is supported by dental implants.

Dental restorations can be divided into two broad types: direct restorations and indirect restorations. All dental restorations can be further classified by their location and size. A root canal filling is a restorative technique used to fill the space where the dental pulp normally resides.

Dental Composite

Dental composite resins are types of synthetic resins which are used in dentistry as restorative material or adhesives. Synthetic resins evolved as restorative materials since they were insoluble, aesthetic, and insensitive to dehydration and were inexpensive. It is easy to manipulate them as well. Composite resins are most commonly composed of Bis-GMA monomers or some Bis-GMA analog, a filler material such as silica and in most current applications, a photoinitiator. Dimethacrylates are also commonly added to achieve certain physical properties such as flowability. Further tailoring of physical properties is achieved by formulating unique concentrations of each constituent.

Dental Surgery

Dental surgery is any of a number of medical procedures which involve artificially modifying the dentition.

Cosmetic Dentistry

Cosmetic dentistry, is comprehensive oral care that combines art and science to optimally improve dental health, aesthetics and function.

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